Children, Mass Monasticism and a Culture of Silence
For centuries, it has been the cultural practice in Tibet (which has continued in exile) to send very young children to monasteries. The children are sent for a variety of reasons, including devout religious belief, education, poverty and a lack of family support. As Melvyn C Goldstein explains in Tibetan Buddhism and Mass Monasticism:
In Tibet, monks were almost always recruited as very young children through the agency of their parents or guardians. It was considered important to recruit monks before they had experienced sexual relations with girls, so monks were brought to the monastery as young boys, usually between the ages of 6-12. On the other hand, it was not considered important what these boys themselves felt about a lifetime commitment to celibate monasticism and they were basically made monks without regard to their personality, temperament or inclination.
Furthermore, according to Goldstein and other personal anecdotes, child monks who ran away from the monastery were generally not offered sympathy or support and typically scolded by their parents and family; with the child sent immediately back to the monastery. In The Struggle for Modern Tibet: The Autobiography of Tashi Tsering there is a first-hand account of abusive treatment at the hand of monastics.
Born in 1929 in a Tibetan village, Tsering developed a strong dislike of his country’s theocratic ruling elite. He was taken from his family near Drepung at 13 and forced into the Dalai Lama’s personal dance troupe. Severely beaten by his teachers there for minor infractions, Tsering (a heterosexual) was then raped by a well-connected monk (and other “official monks”) in exchange for protection, becoming a passive sex-toy or dronpo (Tib: guest).
Even in exile, many Tibetans enter monasteries as children below the age of 16, often as orphans or at a long distance from their parents’ home. Many children do not see their parents or family members for years; their sole place of refuge and care being the monastery. They are then expected to keep the celibacy vow through puberty and adulthood—not an easy task for an adult, let alone an adolescent.
Furthermore, whereas previously monastics lived in isolated places providing little contact with lay people, women or worldly activities, nowadays, the close proximity of monasteries to large towns and cities and the proliferation and easy access of internet porn and so on has no doubt increased and fed the monks’ sexual desire and frustration.
With this background in mind, issuing condoms to monks may not be the most ‘pure’ or suitable method, particularly in terms of preventing rape and abuse, but it is certainly a practical one if monks are contracting HIV and other STDs. The cultural background of “mass monasticism,” combined with the lack of child protection measures, leave child monastics particularly vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse. This is not to say that the majority of adult monks are abusing children (or that it is only a problem in relation to Tibetan Buddhists), but even if it is only a small minority it can have a devastating effect. It only takes a few rotten apples to spoil the bunch, as they say.
Ruben Derksen, a 26-year-old Dutch reincarnate lama who stars in the film Tulku, has stated that is is about time that Tibetan Buddhist institutions were “demystified and the shroud was removed.” Derksen, who as a child spent three years in a monastery in India, recently drew attention to the physical beatings that are a regular practice there. “I met Richard Gere and Steven Seagal, and they didn’t see any of this,” he says. “When celebrities or outsiders are around, you don’t beat the kids.”
And therein lies part of the problem: it’s well-hidden. Although there are personal stories of abuse among the exile community, some people argue that they need to see more evidence; yet, there is no reason to disbelieve all these testimonies either.
Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are, historically and currently, some of the most advanced centers of Buddhist scholarship and practice in the world today. They have produced some of the world’s most inspiring, compassionate teachers and practitioners of Buddhism, the Dalai Lama and the 17th Karmapa being prime examples. For an adult, one of the best places to study and practice Buddhism is within a Tibetan Buddhist monastic setting.
Consensual masturbation and “thigh sex” between adult monks is not the chief concern here—albeit such activity from the monastic viewpoint is far from “pure” and, if done out of frustration as opposed to one’s sexuality, it is not particularly psychologically healthy either. What is more worrying is the presence of children in the care of these all-male institutions.
Who can these children turn to if there is a culture of abuse, shame, silence and denial in their community?
Being open and accountable on these issues will enable reform and constructive action. International children’s rights laws apply globally. This is not an issue relative to a particular culture or tradition.
Understandably, the Tibetan community in exile does not always respond well to criticism or suggestions for improvement, particularly when coming from non-Tibetans. In response to a Facebook discussion I started on this issue, a Tibetan replied that:
It is time for the Tibetan community to stop defending those who abuse and exploit their position of trust. Exposure of these cases and others that are widely known within our communities must be brought out of the closets. As a community, we have NO obligation to defend these people nor anything to be ashamed of. Their actions are not a reflection on the broader community. If we are to prepare for the post-His Holiness era, we better create a realistic and honest image of ourselves to the world. Starting now. As Tibetans, we cannot pretend all of us to be mini-Dalai Lamas. Our community is no different than any others, we have the good, the bad and the ugly. The world must see us for what we are.
If children are being left vulnerable in Tibetan monasteries, why don’t the Tibetan exile leader Lobsang Sangay and the Tibetan monastic authorities follow the Bhutanese example and call for an official report into the safety of child monastics in exile? At the least, in line with their publicly-stated desire to modernize, they could establish adequate sex education and internationally-recognized child protection measures in the monasteries and schools.
When are we going to get a public response from the monastic authorities on these alleged cases of physical or sexual abuse, particularly that of Kalu Rinpoche? If even Rinpoche’s allegations are not publicly investigated then what hope is there for a young, unknown orphan child undergoing a similar experience? What about kick-starting a public initiative that provides both monks and ex-monks a confidential, safe platform to register and report their personal tales of abuse and neglect in the monasteries?
These testimonies could then be compiled into an official document and delivered to the CTA and monastic authorities to respond to. A simple, preventative measure is to bar anyone from becoming a monk until the age of 18. At the very least, setting aside legitimate concerns about violence and sexual abuse, doesn’t it make more sense for a person to take the decision to become celibate after puberty, when they are better able to make an informed, adult decision about it?
On a positive note, Kalu Rinpoche is not just taking on the voice of a victim but also that of a pioneer, creating a school for children whose families are in financial difficulty and barring them from becoming monks until the age of 19. Whatever anyone might think about this issue, first and foremost (following Kalu Rinpoche’s example) we all need to think about what is in the best interests of the children. The reputation of Tibetans or Tibetan Buddhism has to come second to that.
Dedicated to Kalu Rinpoche and the children.
adele_wilde_blavatskyAdele Wilde-Blavatsky has an MA in Philosophy and previously worked as a Philosophy lecturer. In 2007, she co-edited a philosophy book Aesthetic Experience with Prof. Richard Shusterman and is currently working on her first collection of poetry and essays for publication. Since taking refuge with the 17th Karmapa in India in 2005, she turned away from Western Philosophy and materialism and has spent the last few years living and studying yoga, the Tibetan language and Tibetan Buddhist philosophy in India and Nepal. Adele is also a mother to a very active son, a qualified yoga teacher, freelance writer, part-time translator and a passionate political activist on issues related to gender, sexism, civil liberties, Tibet and human rights. Recently, she worked for Free Tibet, an NGO in London and as a volunteer for the Tibet-led and staffed NGO, Tibetan Centre of Human Rights and Democracy. She wrote a expose of Free Tibet’s working culture in 2012 and has also published articles in Elephant Journal, The Huffington Post, Tibet Telegraph and the Tibetan exile online publication Phayul.com.
“China is trying to create hell on earth in Tibet”- The Dalai Lama
This claim is rich coming from the man who presided over a pitiless personal fiefdom
The common perception of Tibet is of a region where the populaces lived in tranquil harmony with the Lamas and secular Lords inspired by humane specific teachings in particular non-violence. Forget about the image of kindly monks for the truth is entirely different.
The reality of life was that the populace lived in abject misery- tranquility, peace and harmony was all fiction. The region was akin to a feudal kingdom coupled with all the cruelty one would associate with medieval times.
Old Tibet was not a nice place in which to live
Some facts about Tibet
This region has never recognized by any state as an Independent country. No country has ever recognized Tibet as an independent entity/country
At best, it has been a self-governing region of China.
China sent troops into Tibet in 1951 and they allowed the Dalai Lama to stay until 1959.
In 1951, The Dalai Lama accepted a 17-point plan put forward by The Peoples Republic of China.
In 1954 The Dalai Lama was elected vice-chairman of the Chinese Peoples National Assembly, thus becoming part of Chinas ruling elite (Communist Party)- wow
In 1959 after a CIA backed uprising against the communist, the Dalai Lama fled Tibet. He in fact had been colluding with the Americans. Does make him a traitor to his country? In the eyes of the law the answer is yes
The Role of the Dalai Lama
The Dalai Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of Buddha, when he dies his soul is thought to enter the body of a newborn boy who after being identified by traditional tests becomes the Dalai Lama. He has stated he may appoint the next Dalai Lama-Does this means he will give birth to himself –what if he miscarries-Is it a case of once again blame the Chinese. The purpose of being reborn is to bring enlightenment to others. All this begs the question why do people have faith in reincarnation. Sit down think it out for yourself and I hope you will concur that it is a load of outlandish baloney. DNA will not support the concept of reincarnation, ah but it is the mystical soul entering the body of another being you doesn’t need DNA…
Despite their recognized position as a living Buddha, five Dali Lamas have met death by the hand of their own monks; some of these were done in for unfitting behavior related to their position- wine, woman, and song.
When the current Dali Lama was in power, he regarded himself as being both the spiritual and political head of Tibet
The ordinary people lived under the tyranny of the monks and the Landlords
The monks owned most of the arable land.
The vast majority of people worked as serfs or bonded labor to the monks or Landlords
Runaway serfs were tortured and mutilated.
It was common for the monasteries to kidnap children for training as monks. Once in situ they became bonded for life. Sexually mistreatment was common. Tibetan monks know how to have safe sex without conception!
The Drepung monastery alone had 25,000 serfs
The Dalai Lama lived in a palace of 1000 rooms
The people had an abdominal standard of living. When The Dalai Lamas ruled Tibet, it was the land of despair for its inhabitants
What have the Chinese brought to Tibet?
They brought roads ,electricity, education, newspapers, telephones and postal services eventually ended serfdom, divided the land and insured people got paid for their work. All these alien but humane measures enraged the monks and the ruling classes of the time.
The Chinese are not to be applauded for all they have done in Tibet and their record on human rights is not good but no different to the rest of China.
Supporter of India’s nuclear weapons program
He Proclaims Steven Seagal to be a reincarnated Loola (After emptying his wallet).
Richard Gere is another notable Hollywood contributor to his ideals-His wallet has also seen the plundering of legal tender.
This Dalai Lama is so loved by the Glitterati famous he could sell his shit in Hollywood, holy excrement!
The list of strange friends and contributors is numerous many of whom were met on his allegedly non political trips
The Dalai Lama called on Margaret Thatcher to release Pinochet the former dictator of Chile who was a client and old friend of the CIA-which she did
Margaret Thatcher was also a friend of Pinochet and the Dalai Lama and the CIA
1995 meets and embraces hero of the religious right – Senator Jesse Helms– What next pimping for scientology
George Bush- the US congress bestowed on Dalai Lama the congressional gold medal for and I quote from the Times of India 14th Sept. 2006-
“The award is in recognition of his advocacy of religious harmony, nonviolence, and human rights throughout the world, and for his efforts to find a peaceful solution to the Tibet issue through dialogue with the Chinese leadership”
My view is this person is a fraud who deserves no sympathy. It is likely he still receives support from the USA as it suits US interests to undermine the Chinese.
The Dalai Lama is viewed as a CIA success story and for a job well done they deserve a pat on the back
As regards being non-violent, forget it.
As regards not been influenced by money, forget it
As regards not having a wish for power forget it
As regards being non political forget it
As regards a democracy or vote under his serene highness leadership, forget it
Peace, love, and non-violence forget it as it is only an illusion